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Penguin

Hapalochaena maculosa, Hapalochlaena lunulata

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Penguin • Hapalochaena maculosa, Hapalochlaena lunulata
There are 17 recognised species of penguins that can be found around the coastlines of most islands in the Southern Ocean, with the most northerly penguins found on the Galapagos Islands on the equator.

Penguins are not found in the Northern Hemisphere, they evolved in the Southern Hemisphere. It is reasoned that Penguins needed to have a plentiful supply of fish and other seafood to survive and because there are plentiful fish stocks in the cold waters of the Southern Ocean, penguins have never crossed into the cold northern waters. So although the conditions are suitable both in the northern and southern polar regions for penguins to survive, the plentiful rich fishing grounds was sufficient for their needs, with the distance and the warmer tropical waters proving to much of a barrier for the penguins to cross.

In Australia, the Little penguin or Fairy Penguin are found in small colonies around the southern coastlines of Australia and its islands.

Places you can see Little Penguins include:

Penguins • New South Wales

  • Montague Island
  • Sydney Metropolitan
    (a population is at Manly; although being surrounded by human habitation, these penguins are under threat by human activities within Sydney Harbour including pollution).
  • Rose Bay, Sydney
    (2 Little Penguins were seen swimming just off the rocks past Strickland House - thanks to Tania H for reporting it.)
  • Sydney Harbour
    (a pair of Little Penguins were seen swimming in the harbour just past the Opera House, alongside the Botanical Gardens - thanks to Heather S. for reporting it.)

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Penguins • South Australia

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Penguins • Tasmania

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Penguins • Victoria

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Penguins • Western Australia

and If you know of other locations within Australia where the Little penguin are seen, send us an email and photo giving details.

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Species

Little penguin (Eudyptula minor)
Little penguins (also commonly known as Fairy penguins) are the world’s smallest and found on the  coast of Tasmania, south coast of Australia and New Zealand, as well as many of the islands in the region. It is thought that the Little penguins should be considered to consist of at least 2 distinct species, the Little Blue and the White Flippered penguins. There are 6 recognised sub-species of the Little penguin including the Cook Strait and the Chatham Islands penguins.

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Royal penguin (Eudyptes schegeli )
Regarded as a sub-species of Macaroni penguins with a white throat, Royal penguins are only found on Macquarie Island south of Australia.

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Snares penguin (Eudyptes robustus)
Snares penguins are only found on a protected Nature Reserve of the Snares Islands, 300 miles south of New Zealand.

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Yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes)
Yellow-eyed penguins are found on New Zealand’s South Island and several sub-Antarctic islands to the south of New Zealand.

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Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)
Adelie penguins like the Emperor penguins breed only on the Antarctic continent.

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African penguin (Spheniscus demersus)
African (also known as Blackfooted or Jackass) penguins are found around the southern coast of South Africa.

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Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antactica)
Chinstrap penguins are very noisy penguins and are sometimes also called Stonecracker penguins because of their piercing voices. They breed on Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Islands.

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Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri)
Emperor penguins and their rookeries are found on the Antarctic ice shelves, with the male penguins incubating the eggs on their feet during the Antarctic winter.

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Erect-crested penguin (Eudyptes sclateri)
Erect-crested penguins are found only on sub-Antarctic islands south of New Zealand.

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Fiordland penguin (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus)
Found among the fiords that make up the south west coast of New Zealand’s South Island and on Stewart Island (south of New Zealand) are the Fiordland penguins. Their habitat is threatened by the increasing presence of man and introduced predators.

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Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus)
The most northerly of all the penguins, the Galapagos penguins live on the equator.

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Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua)
Recognisable by the white bonnet on their heads, Gentoo penguins breed on sub-Antarctic Islands throughout the southern Ocean.

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Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti)
Regarded as the most endangered of all the penguin species, many zoos around the world are involved in the captive breeding of the Humboldt penguins. They are found only on the Peruvian coast of South America.

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King penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)
The King penguins are found on sub-Antarctic islands throughout the Southern Ocean.

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Macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus)
The largest of the six species of crested penguins, Macaroni penguins breed on sub-Antarctic Islands south of Africa and America.

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Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus)
Magellanic penguins are found on the coast of South America and on some south Atlantic islands.

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Rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome)
Most probably the the commonest of the crested penguins, the small Rockhopper penguins are found on islands throughout the Southern Ocean.

Source: from many places, including Pete & Barb’s Penguin Pages
If there are any factual errors, please email us.

 
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